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2013-2014 Autumn Semester
2014-2015 Autumn & Spring Semesters
2015-2016 Autumn & Spring Semesters

Faculty of Architecture Department of Industrial Design


The Car Design as Mass Culture and Art course prospectively aims to provide a basic knowledge of car design in terms of structural and symbolic typologies as well as the aesthetic values of car, design processes and the modern validation of car design influenced by societal change that issued throughout the history. The course is conducted in a manner as a vital cross section in architecture and city platform in order to redefine the context of car by analysing what would shape the future of urban mobility in the name of connectivity, efficiency, environmental concerns and social consciousness as key priorities for the urban driver. The course also focuses on the emergence of critical future responsibilities as issues are discussed in more detail and relation to contemporary and prospectively social analysis and the new sophisticated thresholds formed by spatial perception shaped by several human sensations. Car Design as Mass Culture and Art is a survey course that is based on theoretical lectures given by the instructor and individual applied projects that are asked to create from students. The students are expected to attend the classes regularly, take their own notes and participate in discussions and applied project classes. Final evaluation is based on attendance (%20) and the grades of midterm (%40) and final exams and applied project considerations (%40).

COURSE SCHEDULE - 4 hours per week

Week Subject

1 Towards the modern car; a further place and time for human.
2 Symbolic and aesthetic values of cars.
3 Car in terms of imagery, sensory and cognition.
4 Car and morphological perception of human.
5 Opposing point of views on car.
6 Modern city, speed dilemma and car as a phenomenon.
7 Drive the city by car; urban space and progressive mobility.

8 Midterm exam

9 Semantic content between American cities, roads and car.
10 Architecture, car and mechanical consciousness; Le Corbusier.
11 Car as the pro-thesis of space; a new determinant of urban space.
12 An unavoidable and irrepressible gratification; the speed.
13 A place with continuously changing boundaries; spatial intangibility and car.
14 Panel discussions and results.
15 No class (design presentation week).

Final exam



The course aims an intellectual and practical experience of theoretical and abstract evolution of car and studies in this extended content within a multi- disciplinary approach among a collective conscious. In addition to these studies, sketching and scaled model practices, that embrace annotations from intellectual processes in collage diagram characteristics, will be evaluated per pro the researches. These derivative studies, as an anthology and sampling, will also focus on a thoughtful assessment of various dimensions of space via architecture, human and body interface, urban space, man and machine interactions and affiliations contexture form a mobility perspective.

While selecting the theme, both has been aimed: the goal of cultivating the most basic practices and fundamentals of car design and conveying the diversity of researches and present global comprehensive studies in regards. Even though cars are designed in line with natural, cultural, and traditional parameters, they are considered globally; in this sense, the workshop provides the prospect various norms in car and transportation design. At this point, the risk of disappearance of distinctive characteristics faced by compelling circumstances and restraints of manufacturing due to apparent global culture in accordance with the new economic order will be stressed as aother subject. During the studies, regarding this outlook, it will also be important to emphasize the significance of distinctive traditional and national design entries. Therefore, during the course, the concept of cultural codes will cognitively be examined within various scopes associated through cars in this retrospective.

Cars, as an object and interface, with their ability to almost wrap human body like an apparel and significance throughout the history are positioned as a part of a social paradigm to develop a practical conscious memory. While cultural codes are creatining social categorization, they also include an assessment of specific qualifications on each category; cars with their distinctive symbolic and aesthetic values are the expression of this abstract prospect and physical appereance. In this sense, through the course, cars will be examined as significant objectives forming a social conscious and memory in accordance with their design aspects as one of the actors of modern life. Thus, cars will also be considered as a social program that steers many cross-cultural postures.

The course intends to study the association between car, architecture and city platform in vary dimensions; therefore, the intersections between man and machine with its spatial dimensions will be one of the key criterias of the process. City, resembling a living organism, with its several definitives, will play a significant role to analyze the paths of cars through their existence in human life while exploring mobility concepts with physical and psychological aspects. In addition to this, it will be examined how new technologies could evolve new platforms and structures for developing car industry construction. These will allow to think over prospective city scenarios and project the phenomenon that will grow within this framework.

The course will review the dynamics of the relation between car and road; furthermore, the context of roads within the integral continuation of houses’corridors will lead us to re-examine the important role of cars concerning architecture. Examining that architecture, as a projection of human life in, plays an important role with car in modern life setup that builds another content of a substantial association generated by a common denominator: human. The question of where architecture actually stands within the city leads us to cars as well as one of the most fundamental existence of architecture in such complex spatial manners. The course will broaden the theoretical context of architecture in accordance with mobility norms that man builds within city and urban area; therefore, it aims to propose a new perspective onto the definitons of modern architecture paradigm. In this course, the mutual transformation between city and human, the way that city forms life, the sensation of speed as a result of this and the freedom via cars will form the subtitles of the workshop.

In recent years, the development of cars has been the subject of aesthetic and art professional’s via systematic analyses. Our era has been covered by forms, shapes and imagess; in this sense, we are aware of the need to find a meaning in every object to define the differences, outlines and drafts in this vast panorama. The modern era drives us to make sense of every existing while decoding every object around us among all those extremes and super/ultra abundances; thus, this need that drives us congests the panorama of connotations. In this context, over cars, the most dramatic symbolic and aesthetic characters can be observed. Symbolic characters here represent the capacity of an object to create value within connotations in a specific culture; and aesthetic characters represent perceivable quality to arise its main activity and sensitivity. Therefore, throughout the course, identifying the symbolic and aesthetic characters of car design will be highlighting the background structure; in this context, the attempt will be to develop an artistic insight on applied projects to be held within both in two manners.

The connection between man and machine forms spatial dimensions and this evolution obtains numerous of different levels of perceptions and uncommon vital structures consequently formed by cars thtrough movement, speed and autarchy; therefore, the diversity of human perception leads to assign various meanings to cars. While cars are becoming a part of spatial integrity by their abstract and physical dimensions, they also led to be integrated to psychological dimensions of space and time that is generated by man through several sensations concerning existence. Thus, this course will analyze how architecture and car create mutual dimensions formed through spatial integrity as simple symbol, imagery and sense.

The course prospectively aims to emphasize the urge of sustainable mobility paradigm which is one of the most significant issues of our era. Examining this through possible proposals and the various solutions of these will give the chance to assess micro and macro mobility paradigms and examine the future city phonemenon through increasing significance of cars in this framework. Topics such as analysis of future mobility norms, current evidence of the future needs of people will be more sophisticated with modern technologies and increasing interaction of cars with urban infrastructures and systems will be observed during the course.

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1. Introduction the structures of vehicle design by using a multidisciplinary approach such as architecture, urban design, material engineering, ergonomics, product design and performance with environmental sustainability and social awareness; also paying attention to technological and production constraints.

2. Embracing the design development process into new experiential concepts, redefining architectural structures of vehicles and moving forward with new criteria for efficiency and future responsibilities.

3. Parallel to the theoretical and conceptual training, studio projects are organized into design concepts and their refinement up to digital modelling.

4. Exploring the micro-macro mobility systems responding to the new city typologies by bringing today’s transportation and vehicle design paradigm into the question to interpret environmental issues, global economic manners and the new social structures.

5. Observing new progressive transportation concepts that serve to challenge of the future mobility scenarios where cars are no longer the must-have actors.

6. Raising awareness and sensitivity towards the context and expanding the abilities to choose appropriate design research methods to utilize for a considered abstract.


1. Awareness of transferring a research and analysis methodology that can be applied to various projects following the based activities in vehicle and transportation design.

2. Acquaintance with the different steps required during the process such as hypothetical discussions, debrief and project conceptualization gained through case studies of future mobility scenarios, design evolutions, analysis focused on social structures, art, architectural inspirations in the widest sense.

3. Reflecting the knowledge of transportation design history and its evolutions complementary to theoretical and design practice by focusing on design methodologies, vehicle architecture, technological developments that resulting from the broader evolutions of the mobility systems and particularly in car culture.

4. Helping the students to think freely, beyond the constraints and transfer the idea of a result-driven process into a conceptual project where time management and a continuous progression are the keys.

5. Practicing structuring the project and choosing and applying a variety of presentation techniques; which may include collages, diagrams, storyboards, prototypes, simulations, video, photography and so on.

6. Flexibility to question any given or existed typology and incorporate the outcome into the research process not just for the final project.




Car; Another Space and Another Time for Human

With their symbolic and aesthetic attributes that generate different exploration of existential appeals of space and time, cars are one of the most significant symbols of modern era. While generating a new reinterpretation of modern living configuration, cars also change the borders of physical and psychological dimensions of the space and transfer its the perception towards a new unprecedented dimension. By means of cars taking place in our daily lives, the space we live in is now defined (scaled&calculate) by the time, not by the physical distance between two locations. Cars, in accordance with their competence of movement at different spatial planes, add new dimensions to human lives and form new cognitive structures related with those planes; thus, cars are one of the most significant thresholds of this interpretation through the modern process.

This extraordinary bond between modern man and car has reformed the sense of modern city; beside, the new dimensions added to the sense of space by car sustained a dangerous but irresistible trip for modern man. This century-long relation among man and the car, which reveals complicated moods and quests, can actually be considered as one of the most substantial thresholds of the explanation and interpretation of modern architecture in a spatial manner. Car builds a panorama of concepts, equivalent to abstract implications harbored by almost a “wall”; and during that process car includes its own physical existence irruptive and directly.

The underlying cause of the first car manufacturing adventure was beyond making a vehicle that operates in its own; however, it was rather serving more individual purposes to change completely the idea of man to commute (faster) and being on the road. Within the extent of car’s current significances and values, perhaps the concept of individualism is the most essential phenomenon that has not changed since those days. The idea of traveling with cars brought along the need to reinterpret vary spatial dimensions that evolve beyond motor and its power for man in the name of the depth of travelers’ relation with-in the surrounded space.

While cars clutter cities and city lives, on the other hand, they have started to create their own dynamic aesthetic and panorama of imagery connotations. The course of senses within road concept such as leaving, escaping, withdrawing, translocation, placelessness and nonlocality has strengthened through the presence of car and the sense of physical and mental freedom provided by it; and this became more addictive for man. In a car the surroundings move; thus, cars have the ability to add new dimensions to concepts of space related with movement; they are attributed with the space where speed and freedom are felt deeply. More on this, this whole spatial experience arouses a feeling as of a side and catalyst either an additional equalizer space that contains a unique architectural structure which can be defined by only with its own particular physical and psychological dimensions for man.

The underlying truth of first car had contained individual reasons referring to changing human life rather than serving public transportation; besides, in this sense, the idea of expedited life is a result of modernism’s attempts to adapt the man to the fictive structure of this new life that imposes everything is sequential within instantaneous changes. During the early modernism stages, the increasing expedition of life became irrepressible; moreover, people spent the process of adaption to this new life largely in their cars which can also be defined as a new kind of social structure and interface. Cars are an indicator of modern technic and mechanization on one hand; and on the other hand, a significant symbol of the mechanic awareness and operations that people had to develop in order to survive within their dramatically transformed living and social structure during the modern process.

Today, car is in a different position than the early prototypes in every sense; beyond only featuring a mechanical functionality to move from one place to another it contains a vital structure that is sculpted various emotional statements and spatial perceptions of man. Currently car in a paradoxical structure position that furnish references to speed, vision, emotion, sensation, memory, social cognitive maps, cultural codes, explorations, communication, aesthetics, shape and form, art and architectural hypothesis in line with the deep and layered relation that humans build with space. This present connotation of car evolved it into a position of a social structure and “an entity” that is integrated into that structure on one hand; and on the other, it developed them among a social network and embodied into an important paradigm of architectural evolution in modern age that can be defined as tangible occurrence of all physical and abstract patterns in which human lives subsist.

The diversity of spatial plane between car and movement intensifies the power of social communication within the car also expands the cultural dimensions of this communication. Car, as a moving object, has qualifications beyond covering human body like makeup and clothes; paradoxically, it provides people the opportunity to articulate and expose their own existence in an unnamed yet familiar social interactions. Together with its established moving capability, the global image of car ensures its existence without losing its holism in different cultures; likewise, cars, by having the capability of movement among diverse spatial planes, remove the borders of identity between different places and cultures as a communication tool.

Today cars are significant normative structures that are meticulously designed in order to create a specific connotation of vary social and individual formations. Corresponding with their physical and mechanical necessities, all the abstract spatial, sensorial, paradoxical, imaginative and cognizance evaluations concerning the formal interpretations of movement, acceleration, speed and translocation establish the fundamental determinants of the car designs in aesthetic wise.

Roads went through changes according to car in the sense of both their existence and conceptual assessment. The concept of road, that could be defined as a path of some various static components related to physical distance to reach the cities before the existence of car, has transformed cities into a more dynamic structural integrity in association with cars. Together with the modern life, the existence of car readdressed the parameters of city planning and provoked the rise of new urban concepts regarding the necessity of adaptation to the new vital changes formed by the relation with cars. More to this, the most fundamental modification regarding urban space and planning formed by these new impact is that it recasts the alignment of all spatial dimensions between road and its surrounded environment. The transformation of roads regarding the diversified relation between man and machine led people, who first developed the urban space and then tried to form the roads according to the structural installation of cities before the era of cars, to reassess the concept of journey and embrace an approach that implies to distribute to the fullest extent of the old cities. Today, the perception of modern city forms a dynamic semantic structural content which enlivens in spaces surrounded by roads and encloses a continuity in the sense that cars can now permeate every corner of cities.

The process of explanation and formalization of space with its physical and psychological dimensions starts with defining the most vital aspect that the space authenticates itself; the existence. In this regard, car is one of the most fundamental scale to shape the individual characteristic of urban space and also evaluate people within the social scope in accordance with man-to-machine interactions. In this sense, knowing that urban space is defined by a division of several spaces as per the needs of human life, it highlights the significance of car among the relation between city and people throughout such a complex multilayered infrastructure. From this standpoint, the cross-section between urban space and man has being skidded into a new dimension in which car also joins to this spatial unity. Therefore, the course of connotations forming this dimension is a multilayered assessment that expands the boundaries of urban space towards undefined limits shaped by the laws of motion.

On one hand cars triggered the development of a motorized modernism within the modern progression, on the other they display the notion that suggests the certain necessity of mobilization in human life more concretely in urban space. In this sense, the concepts of drifting away from the ground by moving brought various new prospects regarding placelesness in terms of architecture together with the existence of cars within the modern progress. While the ever changing opinions on speed and distance have led to individuals being perceived as constant travelers, urban plans are restructured accordingly as well; the highways replaced streets and the roads attained a layered semantic integrity in a fictitious range of change, existence, infinity and freedom.

The idea of existence is getting the most diversified perception of man in conjunction with the concept of space that has now been more difficult than ever to define its borders and dimensions. This intimate relation between man and machine throughout the modern era has brought new efforts for spatial pursuits and interpretations of life to exist; thus, car has formed the most significant paradigm over its existence for the sake of this relation through physical and psychological dimensions of space. Car has added a mobile yet paradoxical constitution to the spatial integration and provided a transition between different places to create completely new urban setup and life in various scales.

This existential relation between man and speed, which is occurred upon instantaneous changes of daily lives, has formed a new connotations in urban space by the context of the car through the change of the road concept. The mechanical need between car and speed has added the acceleration to gain momentum as a burden to the relation between city and road to indicate the ongoing change in human life. Car, with its inclination towards speed, generates a unique experience and extended awareness per pro senses that cannot be felt in any other spatial plane. Herein, this course should be formed through parameters and references of urban space that moves with instantaneous environmental changes and complex interior pattern of the car; at the same time, driver has to restructure and reinterpret all that process according to his/her personal experiences concerning spatial precisions.

One who travels in a speeding car would have to redefine the surfaces between inside and outside; speed exposes new sensations for the man that would cause him/her to reinterpret surrounded environment in a spatial manner. Thus, the surface that car forms between inside and outside as an interface creates a psychological statement for rather being introvert or extrovert due to personal tendencies. Lyric poet Giacomo Leopardi, the inspirational icon of modern Italian poetry, portrays the speed of car in his diary as; “Indeed this speed nearly arouses a feeling of eternity, it aggrandizes and intensifies the soul”. Moreover, the speed which enriches the context of car embraces the feeling of eternity of space for the man. The most significant spatial aspect of car that transferring fundamental structures of architectural space takes form by dynamic interactions created by all other encircled spaces; thus, his space embraces a significant living structure for man as witness of life.

Whilst yoga-like exhaustions as a result of long drives in cars are considered as a spiritual trip as well as personal relief; at the same time, road transforms itself into a kind of barrier between silence and chaos in mental wise. The speed of transportation increases each day passing and new relations which are shaped by non-human senses are born between man and machine due to the necessity to keep up with this speed in the modern life. The act of combining car as an object with driving as an action transforms the city concept into a process of excessive interpretations for human; in this modern process, in which we attempt to make sense of everything around us, car embraces several spatial declinations that are found meaning around the act of driving. In this sense, road turns into a wall, that man does not know what is behind, which removes the physical borders of space that is comprehended as well as interpreted by man through several emotional sensations.

When man reinterprets time and space scope inside car, in fact, it represents the first image of existence that comes to mind: To Live. The journey of life that people experience in its simplest form becomes difficult to shape as well as easy with cars. The quote of “Home is a machine to live in”, which is cited frequently during modern era, is an early prognosis for modern man on mechanic consciousness and embodies a metaphor on the necessity of modern life to function as flawless and fast as a machine. Considering home as an architectural unit, it forms the most fundamental spatial unit; at the same time, it is the only place for man to leave the social identity and be authentic him/herself. In this sense, it is not a coincidence that home is the most convenient place chosen by industrial revolution and machine age in order to reinterpret the new social order for modern man. The aim of resembling home to a machine is to draw man closer to this new social order to integrate personal space with social space; the most striking phase of this integration would be actualized by cars that are the most significant indicator of mechanization. As a place, car represents a transition and an integration throughout the space hierarchy among various scales and dimensions. In this sense, car has a common perception of space and can be referred to the spatial unity of life; this human body wide gap is an integrative and unifying venue for peope. The physical and psychological parameters of intermediate space of car, which is formatted by these integrative dynamics, connect the home corridor to the outside lane for the man. Home, the most basic architectural unit, is the starting point to observe complex spatial connections at different levels in everyday life; cars, in this sense, mean to people an independent and autonomous extension of home in the context of continued integrity they add to the sense of space.

The approach between personal space and social space gives rise to a need of integration for people who are forced to cope with the responsibilities of being an individual in society. In this sense, the physical space of car defines a surface between inside and outside while holding a life for human. The freedom and hele provided by car in the context of transition between social and personal spaces transforms itself into new integrated structures that is formed by socially hybrid characteristics of car for the man. In unison, the interior of car hosts a life; a technological uterus which forms us as much as it deforms us.

While car is defining a surface between inside and outside, it also creates a gap that indicates a spatial integrity upon vital requirements; beyond being just an object formatted by movement with their plate and glass surfaces, car is one of the fundamental parts of urban panorama within architectural space patterns and surrounding environment. Car, which completely changed the idea of city and reformatted the urban space, leads us to reconsider the relations between urban space and architectural space. We are fully aware of the fact that car is not the presence of fixed elements of imaginations inside the city; however, it reoccures the spatial configuration of movements in urban life. Therefore, cars both with their physical presence and abtract spatial content are one of the key determinants of modern city within integrated and paradoxical life structures.

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Seeking Intelligent Ways to Shape the Urban Mobility of Tomorrow

The world is changing at a rapid pace and populations are growing more quickly. According to forecasts, 60 percent of all people will live in metropolitan areas with populations of over eight million people by the year 2030 primarily in Asia and South America. Meanwhile, this workshop is focusing on working to develop answers to the questions resulting from this trend.

In this context, the initiative should be an interdisciplinary forum that networks creative thinkers among architects, sociologists, city planners and trend researchers across the whole world by bridging the gaps between experts of various disciplines, cultures and perspectives. The joint discussions should target the analysis of mobility in the megacities of the future and seek to find possible solutions.

During the course should be merging actual local conditions and possibilities for a sustainable mobile future. In this context, the range of topics should be as multifaceted as the megacities themselves as in some cities what is needed is flexible, spontaneous use of public space while in others the focas is on seamless mobility that combines different modes of transportation. Furthermore, another topic should be taken into consideration is the intelligent communication between car and city. Besides covering technical aspects, the findings and ideas should result from this process also incorporate social, environmental and aesthetic aspects.

Mobility and access to goods and services is essential to the efficient functioning of our cities and towns as they expand. Mobility is an important part of city design as it contributes not only to the livability of a city in terms of reduced congestion and pollution but also to the economic potential allowing the efficient movement of people and goods. Furthermore, mobility is at the core of equitable access to basic goods, services and activities such as work, education, medical care and shopping, socializing to enable people to participate in civic life.

Over time, the collective costs of automobility have become abundantly apparent including urban sprawl, air and noise pollution, climate change, road traffic and accidents. Urban planning and design should focus on how to bring people and places togetherby creating cities that focus on accessibility rather than simply increasing the length and capacity of urban transport infrastructure. Therefore, we need to ensure the mobility of the future is well-planned, sustainable and safer to all and everything.

For mobile generation, the significance of the car as an individual status symbol is changing. Its expression of achievement and luxury will become secondary as new values gain increasing importance such as sharing rather than owning concerning integrated sustainable mobility. New needs such as seamless networking with the community and wide-ranging interaction with the surroundings have already been created and will become more firmly established. In the medium term, these requirements will lead to a new architecture for the car; at the same time, electric drive systems enable innovative packaging concepts that will make these changes possible. The new role of the car in society will create space in major cities for other forms of individual mobility such as lean, lightweight and efficient vehicles with two, three or four wheels.
Manufacturers have already solved the function of the car and as reliability is no longer a concern for the consumer; design is now crucial:

1. Connecting with customers will become more important. With an increasingly sophisticated consumer, it is vital to keep them in the loop of design, leading to greater diversity and customization.

2. Cars will interact with people, each other and the city itself. Modern technologies in cars will have a larger impact on city planning and systems as cars become a part of the urban network.

3. New technologies will reshape the manufacturing of cars as revolutionary methods of production will provide the opportunity for new platforms and architecture.

The car is in the process of change and the role of the car will change in future mobility. It will acquire even more capabilities and intelligence and might become a mobile device, an information hub or a tool for mobility with smart networking and communication solutions as new lightweight and efficient vehicles will increasingly populate the big cities. Today’s evidece proves in the future there won’t be just the car but rather various forms of socially-hybrid mobility. Therefore, this workshop is aiming to develop new concepts and creative ideas and it will be examined how to perceive the mobile world and transfer the findings to the future mobility scenarios.

During the process, projects will be discussed in questioning from architectural, functional, aesthetical, technological, cultural, social, environmental, economical and sustaianable aspects.

A setting and an opportunity that we can now start to shape for a better world.

A tool which allows us to express our desires and shape the cars of the future by making its features more purposeful in a right blend between form and function.

A layout to use the car itself as a service with its exterior and improved interior design, more user friendly interfaces, flexibility comfort with less frames and heavy structures and more visible environment.

A mobility paradigm which creates sustainable changes for future generations considering ecological, social, economical and environmental responsibilities.

Upgrading the global transportation system is a process of mediation between the anticipation of the past and prospects of the future yet this process is achievable by creative, innovative and open thinking.

As a general approach, not only for convenience purposes but also better traffic management and road safety, projects must be considered as a transport methods to effectively get people from A to B (mostly) powered emission-free energy sources, roll silently through the city, adapt the interior to the users’s needs and offer access to communication and information channels.

Flexible Innercity Vehicles
Designed for short to medium distances within urban environment.
Small size for easy navigation and parking.
1/4 passengers and limited storage space (flexible customisable setup). Light weight in structure.
High customizability of interiors and compatibility with everyday items. Suitable for car and ride sharing.
Self or partially remote-controlled (switchable).
Safety of passengers takes precedence visual interaction with outside world. Technological, lightweight, new and accident free materials.

Long Distance Cruisers
Act as citylink, allowing greater freedom and range.
Bigger size for higher energy, smoother operation, storage space and comfort. Increased window size for visual interaction with outside.
Self or partially remote-controlled (switchable).
Technological, lightweight, new and accident free materials.

The five subjects which emerge in the distant future of better mobility.

E - Mobility
Smart charging methotds for electric cars.
Possibility for the manufacturers to be able to add the apps.
Ability to change the settings of the controls in the car.
Maximum customization to better adapt to the driver.
Maximum integration between car, connection and information sources. Merging the power of digital networks to the world of cars.
Transform itself around user’s need; modular open platforms.
Sub-surface activity.
Multi-layer body. Electroactive methods.

Car Sharing
Having many and different vehicles without the actual ownership.
Car as a product and service available on new shared ownership models in an attempt to reduce overall car numbers and improve inner city life.
Easy intermodality and infinite possibilities; variety of choices and combinations.
Low users’s cost, no ownership expenses, reduce parking charges, no maintenance. Sharing or owning methodology; or both.

Autonomous Cars
The addition of two ingredients to the dominant concept of private car-automation and intelligence; improved transportation scheme.
Due to the rising of communication shifting online, connecting vehicles into people’s socialnetworks.
Autonomous car (driveless car, smart car) in comprises different conceptions such as automated highways, automated navigation, intelligent public services, smart roads and signs, information to commuters and travelers.
Self controlled cars can offer high degree of flexibility.
Smart cars can help people avoid accidents. Convenience for car lowers and flexibility seeking people.

Smart Roads
New long distance transportation services and networks.
Proveding that computers and communication technologies may revolutionize the transportation by adding automation, intelligence and interaction between routes and cars.
The feature of intelligent transportation network which precises real time interaction between cars and roads.
Hyperloops; speeding on air cushions through elevated and low-pressure tubes.

Hydro-Utility Transportation
Underwater transportation system that uses the city’s water sources such as rivers, lakes sand see inspired by sea creatures.
Hydroefficiency; under or on water transportation is a part of transportation network. Bio-luminescene; as a power by catching the organism in the water.
Biomimicry; including the intelligence of deep sea creatures and considering nature’s answers to human transportation challenges.
Symbiosis relationship; creating a mutual benefits between vehicle and nature.

Copyright © all rights reserved by Engin Tulay. Unauthorized use is a violation of applicable laws.