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2013-2014 Autumn Semester
2014-2015 Autumn & Spring Semesters
2015-2016 Autumn & Spring Semesters

Faculty of Architecture - Industrial Design Department

Course Instructor: Engin Tulay



The Car Design as Mass Culture and Art course prospectively aims to provide a basic knowledge of car design in terms of structural and symbolic typologies as well as the aesthetic values of car, design processes and the modern validation of car design influenced by societal change that issued throughout the history. The course is conducted in a manner as a vital cross section in architecture and city platform in order to redefine the context of car by analysing what would shape the future of urban mobility in the name of connectivity, efficiency, environmental concerns and social consciousness as key priorities for the urban driver. The course also focuses on the emergence of critical future responsibilities as issues are discussed in more detail and relation to contemporary and prospectively social analysis and the new sophisticated thresholds formed by spatial perception shaped by several human sensations. Car Design as Mass Culture and Art is a survey course that is based on theoretical lectures given by the instructor and individual applied projects that are asked to create from students. The students are expected to attend the classes regularly, take their own notes and participate in discussions and applied project classes. Final evaluation is based on attendance (%20) and the grades of midterm (%40) and final exams and applied project considerations (%40).

COURSE SCHEDULE - 4 hours per week

Week Subject

1 Towards the modern car; a further place and time for human
2 Symbolic and aesthetic values of cars
3 Car in terms of imagery, sensory and cognition
4 Car and morphological perception of human
5 Opposing point of views on car
6 Modern city, speed dilemma and car as a phenomenon
7 Drive the city by car; urban space and progressive mobility

8 Midterm exam

9 Semantic content between American cities, roads and car
10 Architecture, car and mechanical consciousness; Le Corbusier
11 Car as the pro-thesis of space; a new determinant of urban space
12 An unavoidable and irrepressible gratification; the speed
13 A place with continuously changing boundaries; spatial intangibility and car
14 Panel discussions and results
15 No class (design presentation week)

Final exam


1 Introduction the basic structures of car design by using a multidisciplinary approach such as architecture, engineering, ergonomics, design and performance with environmental sustainability and social awareness, also paying attention to technological and production constraints.

2 Embracing the design development process into new experiential concepts, redefining architectural structures of cars and moving forward with new criteria for efficiency and future responsibilities. Parallel to the theoretical and conceptual training, studio projects are organized into design concepts and their refinement up to digital modelling.

3 Exploring the micro-macro mobility systems responding to the new city typologies by bringing today’s car design paradigm into the question to interpret environmental issues, global economic manners and the new social structures.

4 Observing new progressive transportation concepts that serve to challenge of the future mobility scenarios where cars are no longer the must-have actors.


1 Awareness of transferring to students a research and analysis methodology that can be applied to various projects following the based activities in car design.

2 Acquaintance with the different steps required during the process such as hypothetical discussions, debrief and project conceptualization gained through case studies of future mobility scenarios, design evolutions, analysis focused on social structures, art, architectural inspirations in the widest sense.

3 Reflecting the knowledge of car design history and its evolutions complementary to theoretical and design practice by focusing on design methodologies, vehicle architectures, technological developments that resulting from the broader evolutions of the mobility systems and car culture.

4 Helping the students to think freely, beyond the constraints and transfer the idea of a result-driven process into a conceptual project where time management and a continuous progression are the key.

Recommended Sources & Bibliography

Kingsley Dennis, Urry John. After the car. Polity, c 2009.
Featherstone Mike, Thrift Nigel, Urry John. Automobiles. 'From highway to superhighway: The Sustainability, symbolism and situated practices of car culture'. Sage, c 2005
Urry John. Automobility, car culture and weightless travel. Lancaster University, c 1999
Bangle Chris. Peter Teuful. CBA.srl, c 2012
Miller Daniel, Car Cultures. Berg, c 2001
Cresswell Tim, On the move: Mobility in the modern western world. Routledge, c 2006
Bellucci Alberto, Angelucci Enzo, The Automobile. Michigan University, c 2007
Tumminelli Paolo, Car design Europe: Myths, brands, people. Tenues, c 2011
Bayley Stephen. Cars: Freedom, style, sex, power, motion, colour, everything. Conran, c 2009
Lenaerts Bart, Del Mol Lies Masters of modern car design. Waft, c 2012
Dant Tim, J. Peter Martin. By car: Carrying modern society. University of Manchester, c 2009
Redshaw Sarah. In the company of cars driving as a social and cultural practice. Ashgate, c 2008
Singer Andy. CARtoons. Car Busters, c 2001

Copyright © all rights reserved by Engin Tulay. Unauthorized use is a violation of applicable laws.




Car; Another Space and Another Time for Human

With their symbolic and aesthetic attributes that generate a different exploration of existential appeals of space and time, cars are one of the most significant symbols of modern era progression. While generating a new reinterpretation of modern living configuration, cars also change the borders of physical and psychological dimensions of the space of this living and transfer the perception of space to a new unprecedented dimension. By means of cars taking place in our daily lives, the space we live in is now defined by the driving (distance) time, not by the distance between two locations. Cars, in accordance with their competence of movement at different planes, add new dimensions to human lives and form new cognitive structures related with those lives; thus cars are one of the most significant thresholds of this explanation and interpretation effort through the modern process.

This extraordinary bond between modern human and cars has reformed the sense of modern city; and also per new dimensions added to the sense of space it started and sustained a dangerous but irresistible trip for modern human. This century-long physical and psychological relation of car with humans and with spaces, which reveals complicated moods, quests, and need to be graded, can actually be considered as one of the most substantial thresholds of the explanation and interpretation of modern architecture. Car builds a panorama of concepts, equivalent to abstract implications harbored by almost a “wall”, and during that process car includes its own physical existence irruptive and directly.

The underlying cause of the first car manufacturing adventure was beyond making a vehicle that operates in its own, but it serves more individual purposes; to change completely the idea of human to commute quicker and the idea of being on the road. Within the extent of car’s current complicated significances and values, perhaps the concept of individualism is the most essential phenomenon that has not changed since those days. The idea of traveling brought along the need to reinterpret spatial concepts that evolve beyond motor and its power in the name of cars with individualism, space and the depth of travelers’ relation with traveling space.

While cars clutter cities and city lives, on the other hand they have started to create their own dynamic aesthetic and panorama of connotations. The course of senses and connotations within road concept such as leaving, withdrawing, translocation, placelessness has strengthened through the presence of car and the sense of physical and spiritual freedom provided by it, and this course became more habitable for humans. In a car the surroundings move; thus cars add new dimensions to concepts of space related with movement; they are attributed with the space where movement, speed, translocation and freedoms are felt deeply, and with the space of city; they arouse a feeling of a “side/additional/catalyst/equalizer space” that contains an architectural structure which can be defined with its own physical and spiritual dimensions.

The underlying truth of first car had contained individual reasons referring to changing and expediting human life rather than for public transportation; besides, the idea of expedited human life is in one sense a result of modernism’s attempts to adapt to the fictive structure that impose everything is sequential within instantaneous changes. During the early modernism stages the increasing expedition of life became irrepressible, humans spent the process of adaption to this new life largely in cars, which can also be defined as a kind of social interface. Cars are an indicator of modern technic and mechanization on one hand, and on the other a significant symbol of the mechanic awareness and operations that humans had to develop in order to survive on within transforming living accommodation and social structure, and a symbol of movement and speed.

Today, car is in a different position than the early prototypes in every sense; beyond only featuring a mechanical functionality to move from one place to another, it contains a vital structure that is sculpted by humans’ various perception levels and by spatial parameters. Currently car in a paradoxical structure position that furnish references to speed, to vision, to sensation, to memory, to social memory maps, to explorations, to communication, to aesthetics of shape and form, to art and to a key determinant of architecture hypothesis in line with the deep and layered relation that humans build with places. This present connotation of cars evolved them into a position of a social structure and “of an entity” that is integrated into that structure on one hand, and on the other it developed them into a social network and an body of laws, into an important paradigm of evolution and assessment of architecture that can be defined as a body of all physical and abstract structures in which human lives subsist.

The diversity of spatial plane between car and movement intensifies the power of communication related with car, and it also expands the social dimensions of this communication. Car, as a movement capable object, has qualifications beyond covering a body like makeup and clothes, provides humans the opportunity to articulate and expose their own existence in an unnamed social communication and interaction language paradoxically.

Together with its moving capability, this established, national and global image of car ensures that it existence without losing its holism in different cultures; likewise cars’ movement capability on spatial planes remove the borders of identity between different places and different cultures as a communication tool.

Today cars are significant normative structures that are meticulously designed, from their colors to their accessories, in order to create a specific connotation and statement of different national values, localized and individual formations. Correspondingly with their physical and mechanical necessities, all abstract spatial, sensory, paradoxical, imaginative and cognizance evaluations, the effort concerning the formal and tangential interpretation of concepts that are experienced with cars such as speed, acceleration, and translocation establish the fundamental determinants of car’s artistic aesthetic and design parameters..

Roads went through changes against the existence of car in the sense of both their existence and their conceptual assessment; the road concept, that could be defined as a body of some various static components related with the physical distance to reach to cities before the existence of car, has then changed cities into a more dynamic structural integrity in association with cars integrity into city life. Together with the modern life, the existence of car made it obligatory to readdress the parameters regarding city planning; and it provoked the rise of new urban planning concepts regarding the necessity of adaptation to new vital dimensions and changes that are formed by the relation of cars with city, urban spatial plane and road. The most fundamental modification regarding urban space and urban structuring formed by these new planning concepts is that it recasts the alignment of all spatial presences and dimensions between road and urban space. The transformation of roads together with cars regarding their significance and meaning within cities and regarding the boosted and diversified relationship between human and car, led humans, who before the era of cars first developed the urban space and then tried to form road spaces according to the structural installation of cities, to reassess the road concept and to embrace an approach that implies to distribute to the fullest extent of cities. Today the modern city perception forms a dynamic semantic and structural body, which forms and lives in spaces surrounded by roads, and which encloses more continuity in the sense that cars can now penetrate every corner of cities.

The process of definition, explanation and formalization of space concept with its physical and psychological dimensions related with car starts with defining the most vital and precise scale that this space authenticates itself; in this regard car is a fundamental starting point to understand which parameters shape the individual relation between human and car within urban space and also to evaluate the relation between car and space within the social scope.

In this sense, knowing that urban space can be defined by a cluster of several spaces in different dimensions that are different in all physical and psychological needs of human life, it highlights the significance of car’s modifier influence on the relation between city and human that has remained throughout this multilayered infrastructure.

From this standpoint, the vital dimension between urban space and human has being skidded into a new dimension, in which car also joins in this spatial existence; the course of connotations forming this dimension is a multilayered assessment that structures the boundaries of extents of urban space –which can or cannot be defined – on behalf of humans and that reshapes according to laws of motion.

On one hand cars triggered the development of a motorized modernism within the modern progression, on the other they display the notion that suggests the great necessity of mobilization in human life, more concretely in urban space. In this sense the concepts of drifting away from the ground and moving, which are the fundamental study items of architecture, brought about various approaches regarding placelesness for architecture within the modern progress together with the existence of cars; which can be considered as an alternative to placelessness. While the ever changing opinions of drivers on speed and distance have led to individuals being perceived as continuous travelers, also urban plans are restructured accordingly; the highways replaced streets, and at the same time the road concept attained a layered semantic integrity in a fictitious perceptions range of change, life continuity, existence, infinity, freedom, placelessness.

The space concept, which is evaluated and formed by various psychological layers of human existence besides its physical dimensions, has now been more difficult than ever to define its borders and dimensions, incidental to the more diversified and differentiated perceptions of humans. This close relationship between human and car throughout the modern era has brought a new aspect to the efforts of human for spatial pursuits and for interpretations of life to exist; car has formed the most significant paradigm of legitimizing its existence for the sake of this deep relationship through physical and psychological dimensions of spatial concept. In this sense, car has added a mobile but paradoxical settlement that provides a consolidation and transition between these spaces for human to the permanent spatial components, which form urban setup, structure and life in various scales.

This existential relation between speed and human, which is structured upon instantaneous changes of daily lives, has formed a new body of connotations for itself in the urban space plane in the context of car’s existence and through with it the change in road concept, the mechanical need between car and speed has added pace as an obligation to the relation between city and road as an indicator of change of human life. Car, with its inclination towards speed, generates a unique experience and awareness extent that cannot be felt in any other spatial plane. Herein it should be stated that spatial concept connected with car has formed through parameters and references of both urban space that moves with instantaneous changes of environmental factors and of complex interior pattern of car; and at the same time driver has restructured and reinterpreted all that process according to his/her personal experiences and spatial apprehensions.

A person who travels in a speeding car would have to redefine the surfaces between inside and outside; speed exposes human to new sensations that would cause him/her to reinterpret his/her environment and the space in. The surface that car formed between indoor and outdoor in that sense forms a psychological field between being introvert versus being extrovert due to personal tendencies. Lyric poet Giacomo Leopardi, the inspirational source of modern Italian poetry, portrays speed of car in his diary as “Indeed this speed nearly arouses a feeling of eternity; it aggrandizes and intensifies the soul”; the speed notion, which enriches proximity of car to human nature, embraces a different notion for human in the sense of feeling the eternity of space. The most significant data that differentiates that transferring structure of car space from fundamental architectural space concept is that it takes form by the dynamic synergy and interaction created by all other spatial existences that encircles it; this space embraces a significant living space for human in the context of movement and as witness of life.

Whilst yoga-like exhaustions as a result of long trips in cars are considered as a spiritual trip as well as personal relief, at the same time road transforms into a kind of barrier between silence, social classes, and being an urban pedestrian; the fact that cars must never contact each other on the road draws attention to the barriers of alienation and spatial deterioration. While the speed of transportation increases each passing day, new relations, which are shaped by nonhuman senses, are born between human and machine due to the necessity to keep up with this speed; in this modern stage we live in cars arouses, in human, a feeling of bodiless citizens that are narcotized by meticulously organized comfort of car space. The act of combining car as an object with driving as an action transforms city, as a concept, into a process of excessive interpretation for human; in this modern process, in which we attempt to make sense of everything around us, car embraces several spatial declinations that is shaped and found meaning around the act of driving for human. In this sense road turns into a wall that removes the physical borders of space, that is apprehended and interpreted by human through emotional sensations, and that human does not know what is behind.

While human can reinterpret time and space context when inside car, in fact it suggests that automobile represents the first image of existence that spring to mind for human: To Live. Human experience established on continuing, “life journey” in its simplest form, becomes difficult to shape, as well as easy with cars. The quote of “Home is a machine to live in”, which is cited frequently during modern era, on side is an early prognosis for modern human on mechanic consciousness, and on the other side it embodies a metaphor on the necessity of modern life to function as flawless and fast as a machine. Considering home space as an architectural space, it forms the most fundamental spatial unit, but at the same time it is the only place for human where s/he leaves her/his social identity and could be her/himself; in this sense it is not a coincidence that home is the most convenient place chosen by industrial revolution and machine age in order to reinterpret the new social order and modern man related concepts. The aim of resembling home to a machine is to draw human closer to the new social order and to integrate personal space with social space; the most striking phase of this integration would be actualized definitely by cars that are the most significant indicator of mechanization and vital speed.; as a space, car represents a separation, a transition and an integration throughout the space hierarchy of various human scales and dimensions. In this sense, the home is a common perception of space and spatial level for people between the car's existence and can be referred to the vital unity; this human body wide gap is an integrative and unifying venue for people who are looking both inside and outside. The physical and psychological parameters of car’s intermediate space dimensions are formatted by these integrative dynamics which connects the home corridor to the outside lane, loses nothing of a conceptual integrity, within the human until today. Home, the most basic architectural unit, is the starting point on the behalf of man’s relations with spatial structures at different scales in his everyday life; cars, in this sense, mean to people an independent and autonomous extension of home in the context of continuity and integrity they bring to the sense of place.

The increasing approach between personal space and social space gives rise to a need for integration with social space for people known as the individual in society; people are forced to cope with the responsibilities of being an individual and the spatial perception formed by cars, the only area in which people are both inside and outside makes sense. In this sense, car’s physical space defines a surface between inside and outside and at the same time holds human life; The freedom provided by car to the physical activity of human in the context of transition between different spatial planes and dimensions transforms into a new integrated structure that is formed on the perception of space.

Car defines a surface between inside and outside for people and also the gap in this surface indicates a spatial integrity that is formatted on a number of vital requirements; beyond being just an object formatted by some spatial requirements of movement with their plate and glass surfaces, cars is an icon of urban space within a space pattern surrounding and encircling for human. In this sense the interior of car hosts a life; a “technological uterus” which forms us as much as it deforms us, which puts us into similar forms and into different forms. Car, which completely changes the understanding of classical city and reformats the urban space fiction for human, leads us to reform the urban concept that contains all spatial and vital relations and to reconsider the relations between urban space and architectural space. We are fully aware of the fact that car is no longer the presence of fixed elements of imaginations of human on city, but reoccurs in a spatial configuration of movements; in this sense cars, both with their physical presence and their spatial dimensions on human life, are a key determinant within an integrated/spiral structure and modern city concept.

Engin Tulay

Copyright © all rights reserved by Engin Tulay. Unauthorized use is a violation of applicable laws.



Seeking Intelligent Ways to Shape the Urban Mobility of Tomorrow

The world is changing at a rapid pace, and populations are growing more quickly. According to forecasts, 60 percent of all people will live in metropolitan areas with populations of over eight million people by the year 2030, primarily in Asia and South America. Meanwhile, this project is focusing on working to develop answers to the questions resulting from this trend.

In this context, the initiative should be an interdisciplinary forum that networks creative thinkers; architects, sociologists, city planners and trend researchers; across the whole world, bridging the gaps between experts of various disciplines, cultures and perspectives. The joint discussions should target the analysis of mobility in the megacities of the future and seek to find possible solutions.

During this project the goal should be merging actual local conditions and possibilities for a sustainable mobile future. The range of topics should be as multifaceted as the megacities themselves: In some cities what is needed is flexible, spontaneous use of public space, while in others the focus is on seamless mobility that combines different modes of transportation. Another topic should be taken into consideration by the intelligent communication between car and city. Besides covering technical aspects, the findings and ideas should result from this process also incorporate social, environmental and aesthetic aspects.

Mobility and access to goods and services is essential to the efficient functioning of our cities and towns as they expand. Mobility is an important part of city design as it contributes, not only to the livability of a city in terms of reduced congestion and pollution, but also to the economic potential, allowing the efficient movement of people and goods. Furthermore, mobility is at the core of equitable access to basic goods, services and activities; such as work, education, medical care, shopping, socializing; and to enable people to participate in civic life.

Over time, the collective costs of ‘‘automobility’’ have become abundantly apparent; including urban sprawl, air and noise pollution, climate change, road traffic accidents. Urban planning and design should focus on how to bring people and places together, by creating cities that focus on accessibility, rather than simply increasing the length and capacity of urban transport infrastructure. We need to ensure the mobility of the future is well-planned, sustainable and safer to all and everything.

For mobile generation, the significance of the automobile as an individual status symbol is changing. Its expression of achievement and luxury will become secondary as new values gain increasing importance: those of sharing rather than owning, and integration into sustainable mobility. New needs, such as seamless networking with the community and wide-ranging interaction with the surroundings, have already beencreated and will become more firmly established. In the medium term, these requirements will lead to a new architecture for the automobile, at the same time, electric drive systems enable innovative packaging concepts that will make these changes possible. The new role of the automobile in society will create space in major cities for other forms of individual mobility: such as lean, lightweight and efficient vehicles with two, three or four wheels.

Manufacturers have 'solved' the function of the car, and as reliability is no longer a concern for the consumer; design is now crucial. Furthermore, this project claims that unlike the past, producing a car blending speed, freedom and luxury is not a designer's primary concern. Instead, fashioning a car for a sustainable and ecological future means other key themes will take center stage:

1. Connecting with customers will become more important. With an increasingly sophisticated consumer, it is vital to keep them in the loop of design, leading to greater diversity and customization.

2. Cars will interact with people, each other and the city itself. Modern technologies in cars will have a larger impact on city planning and systems, as cars become part of the urban network.

3. Other new technologies will reshape the manufacturing of cars, as revolutionary methods of production will provide the opportunity for new platforms and architecture.

The car is in the process of change and the role of the car will change in future mobility. It will acquire even more capabilities and intelligence and might become a “mobile device”; a tool for mobility with smart networking and communication solutions. New lightweight and efficient vehicles will increasingly populate the big cities. In the future there won’t be just the automobile, but rather various forms of mobility, for which this project is aiming to develop new concepts and creative ideas. In conclusion, by this project it will be examined how to perceive the mobile world and to then transfer the findings to the future mobility scenarios.


During the process, projects generally will be discussed in questioning from cultural, social, commercial, economical, logical, legal, political aspects. Upgrading ground transportation system is a process of mediation between the anticipation of the past and prospects of the future yet this process is achievable by creative, innovative and open thinking.

A setting and an opportunity that we can now start to shape for a better world.

A tool which allows us to express our desires and shape the vehicles of the future by making the car and its features more purposeful in terms of considering the right blend between form and function.

Accessibility to use (within) the car itself; interior layout and design, user interaction with controls, comfort, etc.

Accessibility to the car as a service (flexible, easy to access whenever a car needed or wanted.

Accessibility from (within) the car to the outside; more visible environment, less frames and heavy structures, more user friendly interfaces.

The mobility landscape which creates sustainable change for future generations by considering economic, social, environmental and ecological responsibilities.

Spend more time with things that matter, travel safer, quieter, and quicker than before.

Collect and stores the energies (wind, sun, water), cutting the energy use and congestion


As a general approach, for convenience purposes but also because of better traffic management and road safety, all projects must be considered as a transport methods; mostly remote controlled, effectively get people from A to B and powered by an emission-free energy source; rolling silently through the city, adapt their interior to the passengers’s needs and offer access to communication&information channels.

for Flexible Innercity Vehicles

Designed for short to medium distances within urban environment.
Small size for easy navigation and parking.
1-4 passengers and limited storage space (flexible customisable setup).
Light weight.
High customizability of interiors and compatibility with everyday items.
Suitable for car and ride sharing.
Self- or partially remote-controlled (switchable).
Safety of passengers takes precedence visual interaction with outside world.
Technological, Lightweight, new and accident - free materials.

for Long Distance Cruisers

Act as citylink, allowing greater freedom and range.
Able to satisfy buyers where car = status symbol.
Bigger size for higher energy, smoother operation, storage space and comfort.
Increased window size for visual interaction with outside.
Self- or partially remote-controlled (switchable).
Lightweight, accident-free materials.

Below you find five subjects & concepts which emerge in the distant future of better mobility.

E - Mobility
Smart charging methotds for electric cars.
Possibility for the manufacturers to be able to add the apps.
Ability to change the settings of the controls in the car.
Maximum customization to better adapt to the driver
Maximum integration between car and connection&information sources.
Merging the power of digital networks to the world of cars.
Transform itself around user’s need; Modular, open platforms.
Sub-surface activity.
Multi-layer body.
Electroactive methods.

Car Sharing
Having many and different vehicles without the actual ownership.
Car as a product will be turned into a service, available on new shared ownership. models, in an attempt to reduce overall car numbers and improve inner city life.
Easy intermodality and infinite possibilities; variety of choices and combinations.
Low users’s cost,no ownership expenses, reduce parking charges, no maintenance.
Sharing or owning methodology; or both.

Autonomous Systems
The addition of two ingredients to the dominant concept of private car-automation and intelligence; can improve transportation scheme .
Due to socialising and communication shifting online, connectivity of vehicles into people’s socialnetworks.
Autonomous Car (Driveless Car, No Hand Car, Hands Free Car, Smart Cars) in comprises different conceptions such as Automated Highways, Automated Navigation, Intelligent Public Services, Smart roads and signs, information to commuters and travelers.
Self-controlled cars should offer high degree of flexibility.
Smart cars can help people avoid accidents.
For car-lowers and flexibility seeking people.

New long-distance transportation services&networks.
Proveding that computers and communication technologies may revolutionize the transportation by adding automation, intelligence and interaction between routes and cars.
The feature of automatic intelligent transportation network which precises real-time interaction between vehicles and a net of ways.
Moving on defined guide-ways; be physical rails-dual-rails or monorails, traceable. electronic marks, imbedded transmitters and receptors, traceable painted lines, or GPS or radio-communication guides that control the navigation of vehicles.
Hyperloops; speeding on “air cushions” through elevated, low-pressure tubes.

Hydro Utility
Underwater transportation system that uses the city’s water sources; such as rivers, lakes, see; inspired by sea creatures.
Hydroefficiency, Hydroplant; hydric&under or on water transportation is a part of transportation network.
Using bio-luminescene as a power; catching the organism in the water.
Biomimicry; including the intelligence of deep sea creatures.
Symbiosis relationship; a mutual benefits between vehicle and nature.
Nature’s answers to human transportation challenges.

Copyright © all rights reserved by Engin Tulay. Unauthorized use is a violation of applicable laws.